Analyze and think critically about environmental issues

Local and global societies face an array of environmental problems, from biodiversity loss to climate change to various types of pollution. To tackle these problems, future leaders need to understand the science behind the issues as well as the societal context in which they occur.

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The Environmental Sciences and Studies (ESS) major provides students the knowledge and skills to become these future leaders through two major options. The general Environmental Studies major exposes students to environmental issues from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, while the Environmental Studies major with an emphasis in science allows students to focus primarily on the natural and physical science aspects of today’s environmental problems. Both major curricula integrate Franklin’s Academic Travel program, offer opportunities to pursue independent research, incorporate real-world experience, and encourage majors to study abroad.In particular, Franklin’s affiliation with the School for Field Studies (SFS - www.fieldstudies.org) allows ESS students to study at one of the SFS sites during a summer or semester and receive major credit. Both major programs prepare students for careers in government, non-profit conservation, consulting, as well as for graduate degree programs.

 

Majors

Environmental Sciences and Studies

The Environmental Sciences and Studies major gives students an interdisciplinary background and enables them to think critically about, analyze, and understand today's environmental issues. In this major, students receive a broad overview of environmental issues that includes environmental science, the social sciences, and humanities. Students take a core set of fundamental courses and then tailor a set of broad upper-level electives that reflects the students' specific interests.

View requirements

Environmental Science

Environmental Science

The Bachelor of Science in Environmental Science targets students who are fascinated by the science behind environmental problems. The curriculum combines lower-level coursework in the natural and physical sciences with quantitative, field, and upper-level science courses that help students understand the context of environmental problems and their potential solutions. 

Major Requirements (59 Credits)

Foundation Courses (23 credits)
BIO 101 Introduction to Biology: Genetics, Evolution, and Ecology

An introduction to the biological sciences. Topics include the principles of genetics, evolutionary theory, ecology, and conservation biology. Students enrolling in this course must enroll in the parallel laboratory section BIO 101L.

BIO 101L Laboratory to Introduction to Biology: Genetics, Evolution, and Ecology

The laboratory course parallels the topics in BIO 101 and provides lab-based investigations of the material covered in BIO 101. Students must register for both BIO 101 and the lab section concurrently. Students who have previously taken BIO 101 and only need the lab credit should discuss this possibility with their advisor and the class professor.

BIO 102 Introduction to Biology: Cell and Animal Biology

This course provides students with an introduction to the biological sciences focused on the structure and functioning of animal cells and organs. Topics include basic biochemistry, cell structure and function, cellular respiration, and animal physiology. This course will emphasize human anatomy and physiology as model systems for understanding and contrasting key principles of animal biology. Students enrolling in this course must enroll in the parallel laboratory section BIO 102L.

BIO 102L Laboratory to Introduction to Biology: Cell and Animal Biology

The laboratory course parallels the topics in BIO 102 and provides lab-based investigations of the material covered in BIO 102. Students must register for both BIO 102 and the lab section concurrently. Students who have previously taken BIO 102 and only need the lab credit should discuss this possibility with their advisor and the class professor.

CHEM 101 General Chemistry I

The course examines atomic structure, bonding, stoichiometry and the mole concept, the behavior of gases, liquids and solids, thermochemistry, and intermolecular forces. Students are required to concurrently enroll in the corresponding lab section. This course is a prerequisite for CHM 102 and is a pre-health course.

CHEM 101L Laboratory to General Chemistry I

The laboratory course parallels the topics in CHEM 101 and provides lab-based investigations of the material covered in CHEM 101. Students must register for both CHEM 101 and the lab section concurrently.

CHEM 102 General Chemistry II

This course examines chemical equilibria and acids and bases, coordination chemistry, oxidation-reduction reactions, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, nuclear chemistry, and an overview of organic chemistry. Students are required to concurrently enroll in the corresponding lab section. This course is a prerequisite for all upper-level chemistry courses and is a pre-health course.

CHEM 102L Lab to General Chemistry II

The laboratory course parallels the topics in CHEM 102 and provides lab-based investigations of the material covered in CHEM 102. Students must register for both CHEM 102 and the lab section concurrently.

GEO 101 Introduction to Physical Geography

This course examines the various systems of the physical Earth, including the atmosphere, climatic regimes, landforms, soils, waters and life forms. This course includes several required field trips to local points of interest.

PHYS 101 Physics for the Health Sciences

This course will provide students with a comprehensive introduction to key topics in physics. Specifically, the course will be divided in four main sections: basic mechanics (e.g., kinematics, equilibrium, vectors, work and energy, and Newton's laws); vibrations and waves (e.g., sound, harmonic waves, and Doppler effects); electricity (e.g., Ohm's law and electric circuits), and; light and optics (e.g., reflection, refraction and magnification). As part of the pre-health curriculum, this course will also connect concepts to human body structure and functioning. Students enrolling in this course must enroll in the parallel laboratory section PHYS 101L.

PHYS 101L Laboratory to Physics for the Health Sciences

The laboratory course parallels the topics in PHYS 101 and provides lab-based investigations of the material covered in PHYS 101. Students must register for both PHY 101 and the lab section concurrently.

Quantitative Skills (9 credits)
MAT 200 Calculus

The course begins with a review of functions and their graphs, after which students are introduced to the concepts of differentiation and integration. Understanding is reinforced through extensive practical work, with a strong emphasis on applications in economics, statistics and management science.

MAT 201 Introduction to Statistics

This computer-based course presents the main concepts in Statistics: the concept of random variables, frequency, and probability distributions, variance and standard deviation, kurtosis and skewness, probability rules, Bayes theorem, and posterior probabilities. Important statistical methods like Contingency analysis, ANOVA, Correlation analysis and Regression Analysis are introduced and their algorithms are fully explained. The most important probability distributions are introduced: Binomial, Poisson, and Normal distribution, as well as the Chebyshev theorem for non-known distributions. Inferential statistics, sampling distributions, and confidence intervals are covered to introduce statistical model building and single linear regression. Active learning and algorithmic learning are stressed. Emphasis is put both on algorithms –methods and assumptions for their applications. Excel is used while calculators with STAT buttons are not allowed. Ultimately students are required to make a month-long research project, select the theoretical concept they want to test, perform a literature review, find real data from Internet databases or make their surveys, apply methods they studied in the class, and compare theoretical results with their findings. Research is done and presented in groups, papers are Individual. Selected SPSS or Excel Data Analysis examples are also provided.

One of the following:
ENV 250 Quantitative Methods for Environmental Science

The course exposes students to a range of quantitative methods used in the environmental sciences. It will introduce students to the science of geographic information systems (GIS) and their use in understanding and analyzing environmental issues. Students will gain hands-on experience with GIS software. This course will also examine statistical methods commonly applied in quantitative environmental research. It assumes students already possess a background in statistics and environmental science.

BUS 306 Quantitative Methods and Dynamic Forecasting

In the first part of this course students learn concepts in inferential statistics, its main principles and algorithms. They learn how to apply sampling distributions in the case of business random variables, how to state and test business hypotheses about population mean or proportion differences, how to calculate ANOVA table components, and how to deploy estimation methods to provide information needed to solve real business problems. In the second part of the course, students learn advanced model building methods, algorithms needed to make and test dynamic multiple regression models and time series (ARMA) models. In addition to teaching and learning methods based on the textbook, problem-based learning (PBL) and interactive engagement (IE) are used. Many internet data bases, EXCEL add-ins and EViews are used to enhance IE based learning. Selected SPSS or STATA examples are also provided.

MAT 3XX Any 300-level mathematics course
Upper-level Science Courses (15 credits)
BIO 301 Conservation Biology

This course considers the principles of biological diversity and the application of science to its conservation. It covers conservation concepts at the genetic, species, population, community, and landscape level. The course examines the causes behind the current biodiversity crisis and then focuses on modern conservation and restoration efforts. It employs recent case studies around the globe to illustrate course concepts. May include laboratory sessions and field trips.

BIO 310 Ecology

This course examines the interactions of organisms with their environment and each other, the dynamics of populations, the structure and functions of ecosystems, the role of biogeochemical cycles, and biodiversity. Required laboratory sessions. MAT 201 and BIO 102 are strongly recommended prior to taking this course.

ENV 200 Understanding Environmental Issues

This case study based course serves as the bridge experience for students completing their introductory course requirements for the ESS major or the ENV minor and who are now moving into the upper-level courses (However it is open to all interested students meeting the prerequisite). Through detailed examination of several case studies at the local, regional, and global levels, students synthesize material from introductory level courses to explore the interdisciplinary nature of today’s environmental issues. They examine what different disciplines offer to our understanding of and attempt to solve these issues.

Two of the following:
CHEM 201 Organic Chemistry I

This course is an introduction to the chemistry of carbon-based compounds. The course begins with a quick review of foundational concepts from CHM 101 and 102, specifically covalent bonding, hybridization, VSEPR theory, polarity and intermolecular forces. It continues with an introduction to the different classes of compounds within organic chemistry and their characteristic physical and chemical properties, with an emphasis on structure and functional groups as well as stereochemistry. The study of the different types of chemical reactions will rely on an understanding of how the electrons in the covalent bonds are rearranged, giving rise to the full understanding of the mechanisms of each reaction. Students enrolling in this course must enroll in the parallel laboratory section CHEM 201L.

CHEM 201L Laboratory to Organic Chemistry I

The laboratory course parallels the topics in CHEM 201 and provides lab-based investigations of the material covered in CHEM 201. Students must register for both CHEM 201 and the lab section concurrently.

CHEM 202 Organic Chemistry II

This course builds upon the foundation of CHEM 201 with a focus on the synthesis and identification of organic compounds. The reactions of aromatic compounds, carbonyl containing compounds and the pericyclic reactions will be emphasized. Finally the major biomolecules will be covered in depth as well as an introduction to biochemistry. Students enrolling in this course must enroll in the parallel laboratory section CHEM 202L

CHEM 202L Laboratory to Organic Chemistry II

The laboratory course parallels the topics in CHEM 202 and provides lab-based investigations of the material covered in CHEM 202. Students must register for both CHEM 202 and the lab section concurrently.

ENV 210 Natural Disasters, Catastrophes, and the Environment

As long as humans have walked the planet, they have faced dangers from the environment, such as earthquakes, floods, and volcanoes. Today's technology creates new possibilities for disasters, including climate change, killer smog, and nuclear accidents. Students in this course will study the science behind natural disasters as well as examine society's preparedness for and response to these problems from an interdisciplinary perspective. It will look at both historical and recent events and consider what disasters await us in the future. Students who have already taken SCI 110 must obtain permission to enroll.

ENV 240 Environment and Health

Modern human society has generated various biological, chemical, and physical hazards that threaten human health, as well as the quality of the air, water, soils, and ecosystems. This course first presents the origin and characteristics of these hazards. It then evaluates how the hazards affect the environment and human health and the disproportionate nature of these effects. It also explores the strategies and approaches that have been developed to manage risks and mitigate impacts. The course considers these issues in regional and global contexts, with a particular focus on Switzerland and Europe.

ENV 372 Sustainability Science

This seminar-style course will examine the emergent field of sustainability as well as the science it employs to understand and manage the interactions between human society and the natural world. It will trace the development of our understanding of sustainability and its importance in the contemporary world. It will examine key processes driving global change in areas such as biodiversity, climate, energy use, pollution, population growth, public health, and urbanization, as well as provide an overview of the tools we use to measure sustainability. Lastly, it will explore some of the innovative approaches people are employing to address contemporary problems and effect a transition to a more sustainable society. Students in the course will apply their learning in a project that develops a solution for a particular sustainability problem on campus, locally, or somewhere on the globe.

Any 200 or 300-level Biology courses (excluding courses in Practical Field Studies and Skills). Pre-approved study abroad program (e.g. SFS or SIT) courses.
Practical Field Studies and Skills (9 credits)
Three of the following:
BIO 210T Alpine Ecosystems

This course examines the ecology and the management of the European Alps. It introduces students to the natural history and functions of these important ecosystems. It examines how the climate, fauna, flora, and landscapes have interacted and evolved over time. Further, it provides students an overview of threats facing these systems today, such as climate change, human use, and non-native species. It introduces students to research methods used to study mountain environments and impacts of management activities. The travel portion will visit sites in the Central and Western Alps to study natural environments in situ and connect students with local researchers and organizations active in the field. Students will spend significant time outdoors in the field in a variety of weather. Access to some sites will require moderate amounts of hiking in mountainous terrain. Previous coursework in biology or environmental science encouraged.

ENV 230T Freshwater Conservation

This course explores various aspects of rivers, freshwater lakes, and groundwater aquifers. It provides an introduction to the distinct ecology of these three freshwater systems, their human uses, different approaches to their conservation, possibilities for restoration of degraded systems, and a look at the role that lakes and rivers play in international relationships. During Academic Travel, the class will visit various freshwater systems and will also practice field data collection techniques. Tentatively, the travel will take place in North-East Italy and Slovenia. This course may also include shorter day-trips to local points of interests.

ENV 231T Introduction to Coastal Ecosystems

This course examines the natural history and the ecology of coastal ecosystems, with a special emphasis on coral reefs. It examines the interactions between the terrestrial and marine environments that allow the formation of these biodiverse systems as well as the characteristic species, their evolutionary history, and the complex processes that drive everyday life in these systems. The course also explores the effects that humans have on coral reefs and other coastal systems, both directly (e.g., coastal development, tourism) and indirectly (e.g., climate change). The course will challenge students to critically asses attempts to mitigate such effects. The Academic Travel portion of the course will take place along the East coast of Egypt, on the Red Sea. (Good swimming skills required.)

ENV 280T Managing the New Zealand Environment

This course examines the management of environmental resources in New Zealand and the discourse of sustainability from the island's perspective. It will focus on the challenge of conserving New Zealand's flora and fauna, as well as New Zealand's aggressive management of the non-native species that have arrived since human settlement. It will examine attempts to restore natural habitats through visits to the several restoration projects, and to Christchurch to study how environmental concerns are being incorporated into the city's recovery from the devastating 2010 and 2011 earthquakes. The course will also scrutinize the effects of tourism on the New Zealand environment and the opportunities that tourism also present. Lastly, the course will explore how the Maori culture influences environmental management in the country. (Previous coursework in environmental studies recommended.)

ENV 282T Tourism and the Environment: Iceland

This course explores the environmental impacts of tourism and travel. It examines the problems generated by travelers as they journey from home locations to travel destinations and as they participate in activities at those destinations. It focuses on issues of air pollution, biodiversity, climate change, resource use, and waste management. It also considers the potential for positive impacts from tourism, examining how tourism can contribute to improved management of environmental resources. The course engages students with the ethics of responsible travel and examines various attempts to mitigate problems through different forms of sustainable tourism, policies, and tools (e.g. carbon offsets and eco-labels). The course includes a 12-day field experience in Iceland where students will examine first-hand the problems and potentials generated by that country's rapid increase in tourism. Students will also meet with stakeholders in the Icelandic tourism industry to discuss local and national responses to the increased levels of tourism. (This course carries a supplemental fee, to be determined).

ENV 373T Sustainability Science (Iceland)

This course explores the field of sustainability as well as the science it employs to understand and manage the interactions between human society and the natural world. It examines the development of the concept of sustainability, as well as its importance and application in the contemporary world. It considers current challenges in areas such as biodiversity, climate, energy use, pollution, tourism, and urbanization. It introduces students to some of the tools used to measure and assess sustainable progress, as well as innovative approaches employed to address contemporary problems and effect a transition to a more sustainable society. Throughout the course and during the travel segment, students will experience the practices, successes, and challenges of sustainability in Switzerland, Europe, and Iceland. (MAT 103 strongly recommended.)

ENV 399 Research in Environmental Studies

The research project is an opportunity for the student to pursue independent research either at Franklin or with an approved external partner. May be used in preparation for ENV 499, the senior research project or thesis.

ENV 498 Internship in Environmental Studies

This course provides credit for a professional experience in the environmental field in a public, private, or non-profit organization anywhere in the world. Throughout the internship period, the student should ensure close on-site supervision. Students should follow guidelines laid out in Franklin’s Internship Handbook and the ENV 498 syllabus.

ENV 499 Senior Research Project in Environmental Studies

The research project is an opportunity for the student to pursue independent research or a professional project on a topic related to the student's course of study. Depending on the student's career path, the research can be classified either as a research project or a thesis.

Capstone Course (3 credits)
ENV 497 Senior Capstone

This course serves as the capstone course for students in the Environmental Sciences and Studies program. Students synthesize the material from the courses in the major and demonstrate their ability to apply knowledge this knowledge to contemporary environmental issues. Junior status required

Environmental Studies

Environmental Studies

The Environmental Studies major gives students an interdisciplinary background and enables them to think critically about, analyze, and understand today’s environmental issues. In this major, students receive a broad overview of environmental issues that includes environmental science, the social sciences, and humanities. Students take a core set of fundamental courses and then tailor a set of broad upper-level electives that reflects the students’ specific interests.

Major Requirements (49 Credits)

Foundation Courses (16 credits)
BIO 101 Introduction to Biology: Genetics, Evolution, and Ecology

An introduction to the biological sciences. Topics include the principles of genetics, evolutionary theory, ecology, and conservation biology. Students enrolling in this course must enroll in the parallel laboratory section BIO 101L.

BIO 101L Laboratory to Introduction to Biology: Genetics, Evolution, and Ecology

The laboratory course parallels the topics in BIO 101 and provides lab-based investigations of the material covered in BIO 101. Students must register for both BIO 101 and the lab section concurrently. Students who have previously taken BIO 101 and only need the lab credit should discuss this possibility with their advisor and the class professor.

ENV 200 Understanding Environmental Issues

This case study based course serves as the bridge experience for students completing their introductory course requirements for the ESS major or the ENV minor and who are now moving into the upper-level courses (However it is open to all interested students meeting the prerequisite). Through detailed examination of several case studies at the local, regional, and global levels, students synthesize material from introductory level courses to explore the interdisciplinary nature of today’s environmental issues. They examine what different disciplines offer to our understanding of and attempt to solve these issues.

MAT 201 Introduction to Statistics

This computer-based course presents the main concepts in Statistics: the concept of random variables, frequency, and probability distributions, variance and standard deviation, kurtosis and skewness, probability rules, Bayes theorem, and posterior probabilities. Important statistical methods like Contingency analysis, ANOVA, Correlation analysis and Regression Analysis are introduced and their algorithms are fully explained. The most important probability distributions are introduced: Binomial, Poisson, and Normal distribution, as well as the Chebyshev theorem for non-known distributions. Inferential statistics, sampling distributions, and confidence intervals are covered to introduce statistical model building and single linear regression. Active learning and algorithmic learning are stressed. Emphasis is put both on algorithms –methods and assumptions for their applications. Excel is used while calculators with STAT buttons are not allowed. Ultimately students are required to make a month-long research project, select the theoretical concept they want to test, perform a literature review, find real data from Internet databases or make their surveys, apply methods they studied in the class, and compare theoretical results with their findings. Research is done and presented in groups, papers are Individual. Selected SPSS or Excel Data Analysis examples are also provided.

Two additional 100-level science courses (BIO, CHEM, ENV, GEO, PHYS)
Lower-level Humanities and Social Sciences (9 credits)

Three of the following:

CLCS 110 Reading Cultures: Approaches to Cultural Studies

This course has two primary goals: to introduce students to the history and theoretical writings of various strands of cultural studies, and to acquaint them with some of the intersecting axes - race, class and gender - that energize the field. Close attention will be paid to issues such as the shaping of identity, forms of representation, the production, consumption and distribution of cultural goods, and the construction of knowledge and power in a host of cultural practices and cultural institutions.

ECN 100 Principles of Macroeconomics

This entry-level course in economics covers the fundamentals of macroeconomics and, together with ECN 101, it provides the necessary prerequisites for any other upper-level course in economics. This course introduces students to the study of economics as a field of knowledge within the social sciences. In the first part, focus will be on the definition, the explanation, and the significance of national income, business fluctuations, the price level, and aggregate employment. In the second part, special attention is devoted to the functioning of a payment system based on currency and bank money. Finally, students will discuss the instruments and the functioning of public policy aimed to stabilize prices and maintain high levels of output and employment within the current macroeconomic context. Current economic news will be regularly scrutinized.

ECN 101 Principles of Microeconomics

This is an entry-level course in economics, covering fundamentals of microeconomics and aimed at students who choose it as an elective or plan to continue their studies in economics. This course helps students develop basic analytical skills in economics and microeconomics. It provides students with a basic understanding of the market system in advanced capitalist economies. It examines the logic of constrained choice with a focus on the economic behavior of individuals and organizations. After a theoretical analysis of the determinants and the interaction of supply and demand under competitive conditions, alternative market structures will be investigated, including monopolistic and oligopolistic forms. The course examines the conditions under which markets allocate resources efficiently and identifies causes of market failure and the appropriate government response. The introduction to the role of government includes its taxing and expenditure activities as well as regulatory policies.

COM 180 Public Speaking

This course introduces students to the basic theory and practice of public speaking. More than simply a required skill for class and/or professional presentations, public speaking has a long political tradition in many cultures both ancient and modern. It complements civic engagement within the public sphere and plays a central role in deliberative political participation. Since the emergence of the Internet, public speaking has also become increasingly important in digital form. From a theoretical point of view, this course considers both the historical role of public speaking as it relates to socio-political change and its ongoing necessity today within global processes. From a practical point of view, students will become familiar with various rhetorical methods and concepts involved in public speaking, learn how to analyze and critically understand actual speeches, and practice public speaking in a variety of contexts. Students should leave the course with a better understanding of both the theory and practice of public speak-ing, particularly with a view towards global social engagement.

FAS 100 Introduction to Fashion Studies

This course introduces students to Fashion Studies beginning with the history of the making of fashion, thus laying the groundwork for the understanding of fashion as a creative and cultural phenomenon from the Renaissance to the present day. It then examines fashion as a dynamic communication process that is based on everyday social interactions in the contemporary world. In this section, special attention is paid to media representations, interactions with cultural industries, subcultural practices, and the impact of emerging technologies, exploring how the fashion process becomes an integral part of the identity formation. Finally, the fashion process is analyzed from the business perspective with a particular focus on marketing. Taking the classic concept of product life cycle, students learn how the fashion industry and consumer behavior propagate new trends in society.

HIS 104 Global History I: Traditions, Encounters, and Adaptation from the Stone Age to the 16th Century

This course is an introduction to themes and trends in the political, economic, cultural, and social, history of pre-modern societies in global perspective. It covers the development of civilizations in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas from the Neolithic Revolution to the ''Columbian Exchange'' with emphasis on the emergence and diffusion of religious and political institutions, the role of the environmental context, as well as the impact of encounters between human societies. Students are introduced to the historiography of empire and global history/globalization, and attention is devoted to the reading and analysis of different categories of primary sources.

HIS 105 Global History II: Globalization, the Emergence of the Modern State, and Coping with Change

This course is an introduction to themes and trends in the political, economic, cultural, and social history of modern societies in global perspective. It covers the development of societies in Eurasia, Africa, and the Americas from the ''Columbian Exchange'' to the twenty-first century with emphasis on the development of institutions within their changing cultural, political, and environmental context, as well as the impact of encounters between human societies. Students are introduced to the historiography of globalization and of the modern state. Further attention is devoted to the analysis of different categories of primary sources. (It is recommended that HIS 104 be taken prior to HIS 105).

POL 100 Introduction to Political Science

Basic concepts of the discipline are discussed in this class with a focus on the evolution of the state and the role of the individual from historical, ideological, and comparative perspectives.

POL 101 Introduction to International Relations

This course provides the basic analytic tools necessary for the understanding of international relations. After a brief introduction to the realist and liberal approaches to the study of international relations, the course covers various fundamental concepts, such as national power, foreign policy, conflict, political economy, international trade, and international organizations.

POL 112 Markets, Policy and Administration

The analysis of contemporary challenges calls for a theoretically informed and multi-disciplinary approach. This course introduces students to the key concepts related to allocating tangible and intangible resources under conditions of scarcity, and producing public or commercial goods and services. In doing so, the course draws on political, managerial, game-theoretical and economic frameworks and encourages students to apply them to a broad range of cases. The objectives include enabling students to understand and analyze policy-making, the functioning of markets and their social and political implications, as well as the management of public and private institutions. Specific topics covered include (but are not limited to) modes of decision-making, rational behavior, supply and demand, competitive dynamics, welfare, externalities and public goods, consumer choice, and basic monetary and fiscal policy. While special emphasis will be placed on the analysis of political and managerial challenges, the course is relevant to students of other disciplines.

SJS 100 Sustainability and Social Justice: Ethics, Equality, and Environments

One of the fundamental questions we all face today is how to counter the urgent challenges posed by global climate change and unequal economic development. Questions coalescing around notions of ethics, justice, equality, and human rights intersect with questions of how to shape a culturally and environmentally sustainable world. Exploring a wide range of theoretical and practical perspectives on Sustainability, Social Justice and Ethics, this cross-disciplinary, introductory course will give students multiple disciplinary frameworks to think critically and productively about the intersections between the social and the natural worlds. The course provides the gateway to the program in Social Justice and Sustainability (SJS).

Upper-level Science Courses (3 credits)

One of the following:

BIO 301 Conservation Biology

This course considers the principles of biological diversity and the application of science to its conservation. It covers conservation concepts at the genetic, species, population, community, and landscape level. The course examines the causes behind the current biodiversity crisis and then focuses on modern conservation and restoration efforts. It employs recent case studies around the globe to illustrate course concepts. May include laboratory sessions and field trips.

BIO 310 Ecology

This course examines the interactions of organisms with their environment and each other, the dynamics of populations, the structure and functions of ecosystems, the role of biogeochemical cycles, and biodiversity. Required laboratory sessions. MAT 201 and BIO 102 are strongly recommended prior to taking this course.

Upper-level Science Courses (6 credits)

Two of the following:

BIO 210T Alpine Ecosystems

This course examines the ecology and the management of the European Alps. It introduces students to the natural history and functions of these important ecosystems. It examines how the climate, fauna, flora, and landscapes have interacted and evolved over time. Further, it provides students an overview of threats facing these systems today, such as climate change, human use, and non-native species. It introduces students to research methods used to study mountain environments and impacts of management activities. The travel portion will visit sites in the Central and Western Alps to study natural environments in situ and connect students with local researchers and organizations active in the field. Students will spend significant time outdoors in the field in a variety of weather. Access to some sites will require moderate amounts of hiking in mountainous terrain. Previous coursework in biology or environmental science encouraged.

ENV 210 Natural Disasters, Catastrophes, and the Environment

As long as humans have walked the planet, they have faced dangers from the environment, such as earthquakes, floods, and volcanoes. Today's technology creates new possibilities for disasters, including climate change, killer smog, and nuclear accidents. Students in this course will study the science behind natural disasters as well as examine society's preparedness for and response to these problems from an interdisciplinary perspective. It will look at both historical and recent events and consider what disasters await us in the future. Students who have already taken SCI 110 must obtain permission to enroll.

ENV 230T Freshwater Conservation

This course explores various aspects of rivers, freshwater lakes, and groundwater aquifers. It provides an introduction to the distinct ecology of these three freshwater systems, their human uses, different approaches to their conservation, possibilities for restoration of degraded systems, and a look at the role that lakes and rivers play in international relationships. During Academic Travel, the class will visit various freshwater systems and will also practice field data collection techniques. Tentatively, the travel will take place in North-East Italy and Slovenia. This course may also include shorter day-trips to local points of interests.

ENV 231T Introduction to Coastal Ecosystems

This course examines the natural history and the ecology of coastal ecosystems, with a special emphasis on coral reefs. It examines the interactions between the terrestrial and marine environments that allow the formation of these biodiverse systems as well as the characteristic species, their evolutionary history, and the complex processes that drive everyday life in these systems. The course also explores the effects that humans have on coral reefs and other coastal systems, both directly (e.g., coastal development, tourism) and indirectly (e.g., climate change). The course will challenge students to critically asses attempts to mitigate such effects. The Academic Travel portion of the course will take place along the East coast of Egypt, on the Red Sea. (Good swimming skills required.)

ENV 240 Environment and Health

Modern human society has generated various biological, chemical, and physical hazards that threaten human health, as well as the quality of the air, water, soils, and ecosystems. This course first presents the origin and characteristics of these hazards. It then evaluates how the hazards affect the environment and human health and the disproportionate nature of these effects. It also explores the strategies and approaches that have been developed to manage risks and mitigate impacts. The course considers these issues in regional and global contexts, with a particular focus on Switzerland and Europe.

ENV 250 Quantitative Methods for Environmental Science

The course exposes students to a range of quantitative methods used in the environmental sciences. It will introduce students to the science of geographic information systems (GIS) and their use in understanding and analyzing environmental issues. Students will gain hands-on experience with GIS software. This course will also examine statistical methods commonly applied in quantitative environmental research. It assumes students already possess a background in statistics and environmental science.

ENV 280T Managing the New Zealand Environment

This course examines the management of environmental resources in New Zealand and the discourse of sustainability from the island's perspective. It will focus on the challenge of conserving New Zealand's flora and fauna, as well as New Zealand's aggressive management of the non-native species that have arrived since human settlement. It will examine attempts to restore natural habitats through visits to the several restoration projects, and to Christchurch to study how environmental concerns are being incorporated into the city's recovery from the devastating 2010 and 2011 earthquakes. The course will also scrutinize the effects of tourism on the New Zealand environment and the opportunities that tourism also present. Lastly, the course will explore how the Maori culture influences environmental management in the country. (Previous coursework in environmental studies recommended.)

ENV 282T Tourism and the Environment: Iceland

This course explores the environmental impacts of tourism and travel. It examines the problems generated by travelers as they journey from home locations to travel destinations and as they participate in activities at those destinations. It focuses on issues of air pollution, biodiversity, climate change, resource use, and waste management. It also considers the potential for positive impacts from tourism, examining how tourism can contribute to improved management of environmental resources. The course engages students with the ethics of responsible travel and examines various attempts to mitigate problems through different forms of sustainable tourism, policies, and tools (e.g. carbon offsets and eco-labels). The course includes a 12-day field experience in Iceland where students will examine first-hand the problems and potentials generated by that country's rapid increase in tourism. Students will also meet with stakeholders in the Icelandic tourism industry to discuss local and national responses to the increased levels of tourism. (This course carries a supplemental fee, to be determined).

ENV 350 Environmental Management in Switzerland

Serving as an introduction to environmental management in Switzerland, this course draws from case studies and current examples. Students learn how the Swiss manage and exploit forests, agricultural areas, and aquatic systems. Students further explore the cultural and economic importance of natural resources and wildlife in Switzerland, the policies behind their protection and use, and the challenges Switzerland faces in managing them. The course includes multiple required trips to local points of interest including a weekend field-trip.

ENV 372 Sustainability Science

This seminar-style course will examine the emergent field of sustainability as well as the science it employs to understand and manage the interactions between human society and the natural world. It will trace the development of our understanding of sustainability and its importance in the contemporary world. It will examine key processes driving global change in areas such as biodiversity, climate, energy use, pollution, population growth, public health, and urbanization, as well as provide an overview of the tools we use to measure sustainability. Lastly, it will explore some of the innovative approaches people are employing to address contemporary problems and effect a transition to a more sustainable society. Students in the course will apply their learning in a project that develops a solution for a particular sustainability problem on campus, locally, or somewhere on the globe.

ENV 373T Sustainability Science (Iceland)

This course explores the field of sustainability as well as the science it employs to understand and manage the interactions between human society and the natural world. It examines the development of the concept of sustainability, as well as its importance and application in the contemporary world. It considers current challenges in areas such as biodiversity, climate, energy use, pollution, tourism, and urbanization. It introduces students to some of the tools used to measure and assess sustainable progress, as well as innovative approaches employed to address contemporary problems and effect a transition to a more sustainable society. Throughout the course and during the travel segment, students will experience the practices, successes, and challenges of sustainability in Switzerland, Europe, and Iceland. (MAT 103 strongly recommended.)

ENV 399 Research in Environmental Studies

The research project is an opportunity for the student to pursue independent research either at Franklin or with an approved external partner. May be used in preparation for ENV 499, the senior research project or thesis.

ENV 499 Senior Research Project in Environmental Studies

The research project is an opportunity for the student to pursue independent research or a professional project on a topic related to the student's course of study. Depending on the student's career path, the research can be classified either as a research project or a thesis.

Upper-level Humanities and Social Sciences (12 credits)

Four of the following:

AHT 361 The Visual Culture of Disaster

The destruction of Pompeii after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, the plague, the Sack of Rome, Hiroshima, and 9/11 are some examples with which The Visual Culture of Disaster will examine the impact of natural and man-made catastrophes on the visual world. How have painters, sculptors, photographers, architects, and filmmakers come to terms with these disasters? Did the devastation have a tabula rasa effect, meaning in what manner did it destroy an existing and produce a new visual culture? In addition to the historical perspective, the course will place a focus on the contemporary world. It will investigate how real-time media, such as television, has influenced the visual culture of disaster; and it will probe how art can contribute to the prevention of disaster by looking at the iconographies and aesthetics of sustainable energies - sun, wind, and water - and to what extent they have been incorporated in contemporary architecture, art, and film.

BUS 342 Green Marketing and CSR

Green Economy'' and Sustainability'' are consolidated and solid managerial approaches that companies today need to embrace when managing their businesses. The course therefore illustrates the main sustainability models and contributions that green marketing can give to managers and outlines the main fundamental marketing decisions in order to enable students to define and implement a green marketing strategy.

CLCS 250 Ecocritical Approaches to Film

This course approaches film from an ecocritical perspective to explore how the medium of film articulates relations between the environment and human rights. In recent decades, scholars have increasingly examined how film represents ecological issues and humans' involvement with those issues, particularly with regards to environmental disaster and climate change. The course aims to make students familiar with those debates by examining a variety of film genres -- blockbuster, documentary, animation, among others -- to offer a survey in reading film ecocritically, from a human rights’ perspective. Students will gain experience in analyzing films as texts and in applying ecocritical theory to those films and the ethical issues surrounding them, from production to narrative, and distribution to reception. Screenings, theoretical readings, class discussion, video-making and writing assignments will help students develop a critical awareness of how film tells the story of our complex relation with the environment against the backdrop of contemporary human rights regimes.

CLCS 320 Culture, Class, Cuisine: Questions of Taste

Food carries social, symbolic, and political-economic meaning that differs across cultures, and hence cuisine represents a focal point for studying divergent cultural practices. In that sense, this class examines the sociological, anthropological, literary, and cultural dimensions of food. The class will explore people's relationship to food with regard to the environment, gender roles, and social hierarchy, from French haute cuisine to the fast food phenomenon.

CLCS 330 The Politics of Mobility: Exile and Immigration

Beginning with the post-colonial theory of Edward Said, this class will examine the ideas of exile and immigration in a colonial and post-colonial context. This course will explore exile vs. expatriatism, language and power, movement across cultures, narrative agency and authority, and voices in the new immigrant narrative. By approaching the topic from a comparative perspective, students will be exposed to a polyphony of voices and the variety of experiences associated with exile and the construction of identity. Students will examine, in particular, contemporary fiction as a window to the context of this experience.

CLCS 372 Tales of Catastrophe

The cultural debris that results from political and natural catastrophes is made up of narratives that contain both implosion and creation, wreckage and renewal. In that sense disasters mark pivotal turning points in the way we conceptualize and understand human phenomena and cultural processes in a number of disciplinary perspectives from psychoanalysis to literature, from environmental science to religion and from ethics to aesthetics. Students will read the narrative fallout in fiction, science, and film that emanate from distinct disaster zones ranging from the petrified texture of Pompeii to the generative force field of ground zero.

COM 301 Globalization and Media

This course examines media in the context of globalization. Most broadly, students will explore what constitutes globalization, how globalization has been facilitated and articulated by media, how media have been shaped by the processes of globalization, and perhaps most significantly, the social implications of these complex and varied processes on politics, international relations, advocacy and cultural flows. In order to map this terrain, students will survey the major theories that constitute this dynamic area of study.

COM 310 Issues in Journalism

This course uses key topics, themes and trends in journalism to explore the foundations and functions of the press, learn techniques of gathering and writing news, discuss the shifting terrain of journalism, and reflect upon the status and functions of journalism in different cultural contexts. As a writing-intensive course, this course is designed to help students produce high quality written work through a process of drafting, workshopping and editing. Written work may include journalistic reviews, letters to the editor, pitches to the editor and interviews.

COM 352 Environmental Discourses

This course examines the distinct modes of representation that have come to color how we think and act upon the natural world. Given the increasing importance of the environment in local, national, and global politics, this course is invested in helping students understand the significance of language in creating, defining, mitigating, and negotiating environmental issues and controversies. During the course of the semester, students will investigate (1) the socio-cultural history of environmental discourse, (2) the dominant discursive constructions of the environment, (3) the implications of these on, and the status of, contemporary environmental politics and advocacy, and (4) the importance of studying environmental discourse from a cross-cultural perspective. In order to explore the ideologies and attitudes at the heart of varying environmental discourses, students will analyze texts from various disciplines and spheres (e.g. political, scientific, activist, and popular), genres (e.g. films, books, newspaper articles, image events, policy briefs, and speeches) and rhetorical strategies (e.g. metaphors, tropes, and ideographs).

ECN 256 Managerial Economics (Intermediate Microeconomics)

This intermediate-level course in microeconomics builds upon the introductory two-semester sequence and, in conjunction with ECN 225, prepares students to upper-level economics.  This course completes the theoretical background on microeconomics and introduces students to more advanced topics, with an emphasis on the practical relevance and application of theory. The essence of the course is, in particular, the study of the interaction between rational individual decision-making (e.g. consumers, firms, the government) and the working of economic institutions like markets, regulation and social rules. Topics covered include an introduction to game theory, strategic behavior and entry deterrence; analysis of technological change; the internal organization of the firm; economic efficiency; public goods, externalities and information; government and business.

ECN 303 Development Economics

The course will introduce students to the evolution of theory and practice in economic development in three stages. First, models of economic growth and development including work by Harrod-Domar, Robert Solow, Arthur Lewis, and Michael Kremer are compared to provide students with a feeling for how economists have conceived of the development process. The class then proceeds to examine particular development issues such as population growth, stagnant agriculture, environmental degradation, illiteracy, gender disparities, and rapid urbanization to understand how these dynamics reinforce poverty and deprivation. In the final stage, students will read work by supporters as well as critics of international development assistance and use the knowledge and perspective they have gained thus far to independently evaluate efficacy of a specific development intervention.

ECN 330T Neo-liberal India: Globalization and Development

India has often been described as one of the developing countries that has achieved considerable economic success by following a neo-liberal policy regime in the past twenty years. However, over the last two years, India’s growth has stagnated. Moreo-ver, a substantial part of the population continues to live below the poverty line and lack access to basic services like clean water, health care, education etc. This course has been designed to use India as a case study to investigate the impact of globaliza-tion on development and will introduce students to different facets of globalization and allow students to understand the complicated interrelations between globaliza-tion and development. Students will study about labor reforms, environmental sus-tainability, politics of land grab, agricultural policies, urbanization-all within the framework of political economy of globalization and economic development. Students will be introduced to the flourishing IT and financial service sector, one of the main beneficiaries of globalization and the impact these sectors have had on India’s grow-ing middle class. Students will then be introduced to the problems and issues faced in the semi urban regions of the country. This travel course will allow students to ob-serve and recognize the causes of uneven growth and the consequent impact on peo-ple’s standards of living.

ECN 331T Sustainable Economic Development

Traditionally, efficiency has been given priority over sustainability in orthodox economics. With the declaration of Sustainable Development Goals by the United Nations, the idea of sustainability has become central in mainstream economic and policy discussions, thereby challenging many fundamental building blocks of economics. This course will examine the different approaches used in economics to study sustainability within the context of economic development. This will include both mainstream approach that uses neoclassical assumptions of market clearing and the rational choice theory and non-mainstream schools of thoughts that include Marxian economics, Ecological economics and Institutional economics. The course will then explore the relationships between sustainability and various economic and political issues like employment generation, property and resource rights, mode of production, economic growth and poverty. The aim of this course is to provide tools to students that will allow them to critically examine the various approaches to sustainable development. A grade of at least C is highly recommended in the prequisite ECN 100. This Academic Travel course carries a supplemental fee, to be announced prior to registration.

ECN 341 International Trade

This course will introduce students to the major theories and tools used in the study of international trade. Particular attention will be paid to deriving, analyzing, and assessing the empirical evidence for and against the Ricardian and Heckscher-Ohlin conceptions of comparative advantage, the Stolper-Samuelson Factor-Price Equalization Theorem, and New Trade Theories based on assumptions of imperfect competition. Students will become skilled at using a variety of graphical devices including offer curves to describe the effect which variations in government policy, factor dynamics, country size, technology, tastes, and transport costs will have on the terms of as well as the magnitude and distribution of the gains from trade. (With professor permission, students may take this course with no ECN 256 prerequisite.)

ECN 355 Political Economy: Theories and Issues

This course is designed to introduce students to the foundations of political economy. Political economy is the study of the economic system from a critical, historical and interdisciplinary perspective to provide a greater understanding of our current economic system. In this course, students will learn about different theories in political economy and how these theories help us understand the transformation of a pre capitalist system to the current capitalist system. Some of the approaches that students will be introduced to are Institutional, Marxian, Sraffian, Post-Keynesian and Austrian. This course will also draw from these various theories and examine their implications for different issues that arise from the current social and economic formation. Some of the issues that will be considered in this course are social and economic inequality, gender inequality, issues concerning the ecology, power relations and conflict in modern society, political economy of poverty and uneven development.

ENV 220 Ecocritical Approaches to Literature

This interdisciplinary, writing-intensive course will introduce students to environmental literary criticism, more commonly known since the 1990s as ''ecocriticism.'' As a theoretical approach to literature, eco-criticism provides a secondary lens through which to analyze primary sources; an eco-critical approach focuses on how these primary sources have ''constructed'' our relationship to the natural world through writing and narrative. In applying eco-critical theory to a selection of primary fiction, students will examine some of the major environmental themes found in literature, among others: land use, speciesism, climate change, environmental apocalypse, and the post-human. Students will explore these themes using some of the basic critical tools and methodologies of ecocriticism, not only to explore how authors write about the environment, but also to examine how the environment itself is constructed through aesthetic discourse. Students should leave the course with improved critical environmental literacy skills that will enable interdisciplinary reflection about our interactions with the natural environment.

ENV 498 Internship in Environmental Studies

This course provides credit for a professional experience in the environmental field in a public, private, or non-profit organization anywhere in the world. Throughout the internship period, the student should ensure close on-site supervision. Students should follow guidelines laid out in Franklin’s Internship Handbook and the ENV 498 syllabus.

HIS 202T History of Switzerland

Switzerland can be seen as a striking exception to the idea of a modern Western nation state: one of the oldest republics, with four official languages, neutral by tradition with at the same time a strong military tradition, a direct democracy and nevertheless one of the most stable states in the world. Hence, it has convincingly been called a ''country of minorities'' or just ''an exception''. This course analyzes the political, economic, social, and cultural development of Switzerland as a coherent and significant part of the history of medieval and modern Europe, with visits to places such as Bern, Basel, Schwyz, St. Gallen, and Zurich. Key themes covered include the founding of the Swiss Confederation in the thirteenth century, the initiation of the Swiss Reformation by Ulrich Zwingli in the sixteenth century, the introduction of the federal government in the nineteenth century, and the present day polemics of immigration and direct democracy. Local day trips to the medieval Ticinese towns of Riva San Vitale and Mendrisio round out the course.

HIS 325 Human Rights in History

The idea of universal, inalienable rights has become one of the most influential concepts in modern history. Human Rights have become an inspiration to oppressed groups and individuals around the globe, a rallying cry for a global civil society, and also a controversial source of legitimation for political and military interventions. The course asks about the reasons for the stellar rise of the concept of Human Rights from ''nonsense on stilts'' (Jeremy Bentham) to such a powerful driving force in contemporary politics. Also, it asks whether Human Rights are the result of a specifically European or Western or Christian legacy. Students in this course will discuss some key thinkers from the Enlightenment to the present within their historical contexts, and analyze not only the philosophical and theoretical framework for Human Rights as a factor in history, but also have a closer look into the consequences of Human Rights influenced politics in general.

HIS 355 The World and the West in the Long 19th Century

The world today has been shaped to a large extent by Europe and America in the long nineteenth century between the Enlightenment and the First World War. During this period dramatic changes in social, economic, political and cultural ideas and institutions were related to changes in how people in the West conceptualized the world around them. Although Europeans and Americans exerted global influence through industrialization and imperialism, in turn they were influenced by people beyond the West from Africa to the Far East. Thus globalization is not a recent phenomenon. With emphasis on Christopher Bayly's recent book The Birth of the Modern World, 1780-1914: Global Connections and Comparisons, among other works, this course will focus on major themes in the study of modernity such as political ideologies and the roles of science and religion as related to the development of the idea of ''Europe'' or ''the West'' with special reference to the British colonies, Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, and Japan. It is intended to provide not only a broad view of a crucial period in modern history but also a functional knowledge of themes and concepts necessary for understanding the contemporary world. Students read primary as well as secondary sources, and attention is devoted to methodological considerations and recent trends in scholarship.

POL 281T Politics of Sustainability and Development

This interdisciplinary course explores the politics and practice of sustainable development in the industrial North and developing South. Through a series of problem-based case studies, students will explore the political, social, economic, environmental, and cultural relationships that encompass the important field of sustainable development. Students will come to better understand how developed, as well as lesser developed countries, approach sustainability and natural resource management. Student research projects will include team-based analyses of the politics of sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, climate change, biodiversity, and sustainable design within the broader context of global environmental issues such as deforestation, desertification, habitat degradation, and conventional models of development. (Destination countries will vary.)

POL 310 International Law

This lecture-seminar course introduces students to the main elements of international law. The historical origins of the system, the sources of the law, the importance of territory, jurisdiction, recognition, treaties, claims and nationality, are studied both in theory and in applications. The examination of cases is emphasized.

POL 321 International Organization

The focus of this course is the development of supra-national and international agencies and entities. The United Nations, the European Union, the IMF, the World Bank, trading blocs, and other specialized agencies are studied as examples-in light of increasing economic interdependence in the international system.

POL 376 International Environmental Politics

It has become increasingly apparent in recent years that environmental problems have been proliferating and nation-states are not able to cope with them individually. International cooperation is essential to finding and applying solutions. This course will first examine the nature and the sources of the main environmental problems affecting the lives of nations, such as climate change and its effects, including the ozone layer and the greenhouse effect, acid rain, desertification, pollution, disposal of radioactive and chemical waste material, etc. Students will investigate the environmental problems connected to trade globalization and the question of sustainable development and will study how states have tried to deal with these problems and the role of international organizations such as the UN and the EU and non-governmental organizations such as Greenpeace, etc. The effectiveness of international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol and the problems in their application will also be examined.

POL 377 International Political Economy

The interplay between political and economic issues has become central to the study of international relations in the modern world. This course will examine the traditional theoretical foundations of International Political Economy (the views of the liberals, the Marxists, the nationalists, etc.) and their applicability to today's world. Using an inter-disciplinary approach, the course will look at both historical background and present-day issues and conditions. The problems of development and North-South relations and the question of sustainability will be examined. International trade issues, such as the relations between trade globalization and environmental and human rights concerns and the role of institutions such as, the WTO, the IMF and G8 meetings will be studied. Finally the course will also consider new problem areas such as the internet and its control and e-commerce and the emerging role of non-governmental organizations.(Formerly POL 277. Students cannot earn credit for both POL 277 and POL 377.)

POL 378 International Politics of Energy and Sustainability

The politics of energy play a fundamental role in economic processes, growth and development. Energy crises in the recent past have demonstrated very clearly that no government can afford to ignore energy issues. For that matter, guaranteeing access to energy resources at reasonable costs is of such importance today that it has also become a strategic concern directly linked to national security. This course will examine the supply, the availability, the distribution and the use of energy resources internationally and the policies that states adopt to try to assure that their needs will be met. Students will also study alternative energy sources beyond the traditional reliance on hydrocarbon fuels and how states and international organizations try to develop and promote their use. The close relations of energy policies to environmental questions and the role of non-governmental organizations in these questions will also be considered. Finally, the role of international organizations such as the OPEC, the International Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency will also be analyzed. (Formerly POL 278. Students cannot earn credit for both POL 278 and POL 378.)

POL 398 Human Rights in International Law and Politics

Since the end of the Second World War human rights have played a growing role in international law and in international politics. The heinous atrocities committed during the war, unparalleled in history in scope and horror, aroused worldwide indignation and gave rise to the desire to establish new rules and reinforce existing norms that could guarantee respect for fundamental human rights internationally. Conventional international law was developed through a series of multilateral treaties sponsored by the United Nations and institutions to guarantee respect for these norms were established. In spite of the broad consensus on the need for these norms and the institutions, the expansion of human rights has been accompanied by controversy in both legal application and political interpretation and usage. This course will examine the historical development and philosophical bases of human rights from the ancient world to the present before looking at the role of human rights in international law as it has developed since the Second World War. The course will look at how the introduction of human rights into the area of international law has affected fundamental precepts of the international law system itself and some of the problems this has created. Treaty law, customary law and growing jurisprudence will be considered. The course will also review to the problems of enforcement and application of human rights law both on a national and international level and the functioning of the various institutions (tribunals, IGO’s and NGO’s) that have been established with this purpose in mind. Finally students will examine the political role of human rights in the foreign policies of states and other organizations (such as the European Union) and the major issues confronting human rights today (terrorism, civil wars, new areas of expansion of human rights, such as international environmental law or the distribution of energy resources or water and the question of humanitarian intervention).

PSY 315 Environmental Psychology

This course introduces a relatively new field of study in psychology that focuses on the interaction between the environment and human beings, examining how the physical features of the environment impact cognition, behavior, and well-being, and how human actions in turn produce immediate and long-term consequences on the environment. In this course, the environment is broadly defined to include not only our physical surroundings (both natural and built) but also the larger, socio-cultural and political milieu in which people live. This course will borrow ideas and information from a variety of other areas and disciplines, including anthropology, sociology, biology, geography, urban planning, public policy, and other areas. Topics to be covered include: dysfunctional and restorative environments, the effects of environmental stressors, the nature and use of personal space, environmental risk perception, psychological impact of ecological crises, values and attitudes towards nature, and conservation psychology.

STA 235 Sustainability and the Studio

Over the past few decades, sustainability has become a movement in the visual arts, shifting from a purely ecological to a larger cultural context and covering a vast range of ecological, economic, political, moral and ethical concerns. Sustainable art is usually distinguished from earlier movements like environmental art in that it advocates issues in sustainability, like ecology, social justice, non-violence and grassroots democracy. This studio course will approach sustainability and artistic practice from a number of viewpoints and modes of working. After a general introduction to sustainability in the arts today through lectures, videos and discussions, students will do creative projects, presentations and papers on current social issues or environmental concerns, the use of sustainable materials, recycling materials, community outreach, local environmental and sustainability initiatives). Class sessions may involve trips off-campus to an exhibition or event. There is a course fee to cover materials and travel expenses.

STA 240T Sustainability and Art in Europe

Over the past few decades, sustainability has become a movement in the visual arts, shifting from a purely ecological to a larger cultural context and covering a vast range of ecological, economic, political, moral and ethical concerns. Sustainable art is usually distinguished from earlier movements like environmental art in that it advocates issues in sustainability, like ecology, social justice, non-violence and grassroots democracy. This studio course will approach sustainability and artistic practice from a number of viewpoints and modalities. In addition to providing a general introduction to sustainability in the arts and the evolving role of the arts in today's society, students will engage in creative projects, presentations and papers on current social issues and/or environmental concerns (including for example the use of sustainable materials, recycling materials, community outreach, local environmental and sustainability initiatives). During the travel period, students will have the opportunity to see exhibitions and to visit institutions, organizations and artists who are concerned with sustainability and related issues. This part of the course may also involve a creative project that seeks to envisage art as a catalyst to stimulate discourse and foster change. There is a studio fee for art supplies for the on-campus part of the course.

Note: Prerequisites may be required for courses outside of the major.

Capstone Course (3 credits)
ENV 497 Senior Capstone

This course serves as the capstone course for students in the Environmental Sciences and Studies program. Students synthesize the material from the courses in the major and demonstrate their ability to apply knowledge this knowledge to contemporary environmental issues. Junior status required

Faculty

Chair of the Academic Division of Environment, Math, Psychology and Health

Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison
M.E.M. Duke University
B.A. Duke University

Office: Villa, North Campus, Loft
Phone: +41 91 986 36 50
Email: bhale@fus.edu

Brack W. Hale

Associate Professor, Biology and Environmental Sciences 

Ph.D. Montana State University, United States 
M.S. Swiss Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland

Office: Villa, North Campus, Loft  
Phone: +41 91 986 36 62
Email: pdellacroce@fus.edu

Patrick Della Croce